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Introduction and Acknowledgements

Extension: PkModeling
Acknowledgments: This work is part of the National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC), funded by the National Institutes of Health through the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research.
Implementation of the pharmacokinetics modeling was contributed by Yingxuan Zhu and Jim Miller from GE Research.
Author: Yingxuan Zhu, Jim Miller (GE)
Contact: Yingxuan Zhu,

GE Global Research  
National Alliance for Medical Image Computing (NA-MIC)  

Module Description

PkModeling (Pharmacokinetics Modeling) calculates quantitative parameters from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced DCE-MRI images. This module performs two operations:

  1. Converts signal intensities to concentration values. The concentration values are used to calculate quantitative parameters.
  2. Calculates quantitative parameters from concentration values. These parameters include:
Volume transfer constant between blood plasma and EES (extracellular-extravascular space) at each voxel
Fractional volume for extracellular space at each voxel
Maximum slope in the time series curve of each voxel
Area under the curve of each voxel, measured from bolus arrival time to the end time of interval, normalized by the AUC of the AIF

Use Cases


Panels and their use

  • IO
    • Input: 4D DCE-MRI data; 3D mask showing the location of the arterial input function.
    • Output: 4 volumes showing the maps of quantitative parameters: ktrans, ve, maximum slope, and area under the curve (AUC).
  • Parameters
    • PkModeling:
      • T1 Blood Value
      • T1 Tissue Value
      • Relaxivity Value
      • Hematocrit Value. Volume percentage of red blood cells in blood.
      • AUC Time Interval Value: Time interval for AUC calculation
    • Acquisition:
      • TR Value: Repetition time,
      • TE Value: Echo time,
      • FA Value: Flip angle,
      • Time Axis: Time series.

Similar Modules


  • Knopp MV, Giesel FL, Marcos H et al: Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in oncology. Top Magn Reson Imaging, 2001; 12:301-308.
  • Rijpkema M, Kaanders JHAM, Joosten FBM et al: Method for quantitative mapping of dynamic MRI contrast agent uptake in human tumors. J Magn Reson Imaging 2001; 14:457-463.

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