Documentation/Nightly/Developers/FAQ/Python Scripting

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Python Scripting

How to systematically execute custom python code at startup ?

Each time Slicer starts, it will look up for a file named .slicerrc.py into your HOME folder.

See What is my HOME folder ?

How to save an image/volume using python ?

The module slicer.util provides methods allowing to save either a node or an entire scene:

  • saveNode
  • saveScene

For more details see:


How to assign a volume to a Slice view ?

Assuming the MRHead sample data has been loaded, you could do the following:

red_logic = slicer.app.layoutManager().sliceWidget("Red").sliceLogic()
red_cn = red_logic.GetSliceCompositeNode()
red_logic.GetSliceCompositeNode().SetBackgroundVolumeID(slicer.util.getNode('MRHead').GetID())

Discussion: http://slicer-devel.65872.n3.nabble.com/Assign-volumes-to-views-tt4028694.html

How to access vtkRenderer in Slicer 3D view ?

renderer = slicer.app.layoutManager().threeDWidget(0).threeDView().renderWindow().GetRenderers().GetFirstRenderer()

Should I used 'old style' or 'new style' python classes in my scripted module

When python classes have no superclass specified they are 'old style' as described here [1].

In general it doesn't matter for the classes in a scripted module, since they won't be subclassed either old or new style should be the same.

For other python code in slicer where you might be subclassing, it's better to use new style classes. See the class hierarchies in the EditorLib and the DICOMLib for examples.

How to harden a transform ?

>>> n = getNode('Bone')
>>> logic = slicer.vtkSlicerTransformLogic()
>>> logic.hardenTransform(n)

Discussion: http://slicer-devel.65872.n3.nabble.com/Scripting-hardened-transforms-tt4029456.html

Where can I find example scripts?

Have a look at Documentation/Nightly/ScriptRepository.

How can I use a visual debugger for step-by-step debugging

Visual debugging (setting breakpoints, execute code step-by-step, view variables, stack, etc.) of Python scripted module is possible by using PyDev by using the Python debugger extension.

See detailed instructions at the Python debugger's extension page.

Visual debugging of Python modules in Slicer

Why can't I access my C++ Qt class from python

  • Python wrapping of a Qt class requires a Qt style constructor with QObject as argument (it can be defaulted to null though), which is public. If one of these are missing, python wrapping will fail for that class
  • [Other reasons go here]

How can I access callData argument in a VTK object observer callback function

To get notification about an event emitted by a VTK object you can simply use the AddObserver method, for example:

def sceneModifiedCallback(caller, eventId):
  print "Scene modified"
  print "There are {0} nodes in the scene". format(slicer.mrmlScene.GetNumberOfNodes())

sceneModifiedObserverTag = slicer.mrmlScene.AddObserver(vtk.vtkCommand.ModifiedEvent, sceneModifiedCallback)

If an event also contains additional information as CallData then the type of this argument has to be specified as well, for example:

@vtk.calldata_type(vtk.VTK_OBJECT)
def nodeAddedCallback(caller, eventId, callData):
  print "Node added"
  print "New node: {0}".format(callData.GetName())

nodeAddedModifiedObserverTag = slicer.mrmlScene.AddObserver(slicer.vtkMRMLScene.NodeAddedEvent, nodeAddedCallback)

Note: @vtk.calldata_type is a Python decorator, which modifies properties of a function that is declared right after the decorator. The decorator is defined in VTK (in Wrapping\Python\vtk\util\misc.py).

Usage from a class requires an extra step of creating the callback in the class __init__ function, as Python2 by default does some extra wrapping (http://stackoverflow.com/questions/9523370/adding-attributes-to-instance-methods-in-python):

class MyClass:
  def __init__(self):
    from functools import partial
    def nodeAddedCallback(self, caller, eventId, callData):
      print "Node added"
      print "New node: {0}".format(callData.GetName())
    self.nodeAddedCallback = partial(nodeAddedCallback, self)
    self.nodeAddedCallback.CallDataType = vtk.VTK_OBJECT
  def registerCallbacks(self):
    self.nodeAddedModifiedObserverTag = slicer.mrmlScene.AddObserver(slicer.vtkMRMLScene.NodeAddedEvent, self.nodeAddedCallback)
  def unregisterCallbacks(self):
    slicer.mrmlScene.RemoveObserver(self.nodeAddedModifiedObserverTag)
        
myObject = MyClass()
myObject.registerCallbacks()

Allowed CallDataType values: VTK_STRING, VTK_OBJECT, VTK_INT, VTK_LONG, VTK_DOUBLE, VTK_FLOAT, "string0". See more information here: https://github.com/Kitware/VTK/blob/master/Wrapping/PythonCore/vtkPythonCommand.cxx

A simplified syntax is available by using a mix-in (but currently this is not usable for scripted loadable module classes, only for simple helper classes, see Documentation/Labs/PythonObserverCallbacks page for details):

from slicer.util import VTKObservationMixin

class MyClass(VTKObservationMixin):
  def __init__(self):
    VTKObservationMixin.__init__(self)
    self.addObserver(slicer.mrmlScene, slicer.vtkMRMLScene.NodeAddedEvent, self.nodeAddedCallback)
  
  @vtk.calldata_type(vtk.VTK_OBJECT)
  def nodeAddedCallback(self, caller, eventId, callData):
    print "Node added"
    print "New node: {0}".format(callData.GetName())

myObject = MyClass()

Note: VTKObservationMixin is a Python mix-in that allows adding a set of methods to a class by inheritance. VTKObservationMixin includes addObserver, hasObserver, observer, removeObserver, removeObservers methods, defined in Slicer (in Base\Python\slicer\util.py).

How to run CLI module from Python?

See example here: https://github.com/fedorov/ChangeTrackerPy/blob/master/ChangeTracker/ChangeTrackerWizard/ChangeTrackerRegistrationStep.py#L56-L67